Gamingdeputy reported on November 21 that recently, the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the Central Organization Department, the Central Organization Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Public Security Thirteen departments including the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation jointly issued the “Opinions on strengthening scientific and technological innovation in cultural relics” (hereinafter referred to as the “Opinions”).
The main goal of the “Opinions” is to focus on building a number of national and regional cultural relics scientific research institutions by 2025, relying on research-oriented cultural and museum units, universities and scientific research institutes; cultural relics scientific research capabilities Significant improvement has been achieved to form a scientific research talent echelon with stable scientific research direction and reasonable structure; the national cultural relics and archaeological specimen resource database and the national cultural relics protection scientific data center (cultural relics large database) have been initially established; a number of key technologies for cultural relics protection and archaeology have been broken through in key areas, forming A number of system solutions have been developed to establish and improve an effective connection mechanism for basic research on cultural relics, applied research and the transformation of scientific and technological achievements.
By 2035, establish a cultural relics science and technology innovation network that is interdisciplinary and cross-industry with effective division of labor, build a basic cultural relics science and technology platform system and a shared service mechanism, and form a systematic theory, method and technology of cultural relics science and technology innovation with Chinese characteristics, cultural relics protection, The ability to research, manage and utilize scientific and technological innovation has been significantly enhanced, and the permanent preservation and sustainable use of cultural relics and their historical, artistic and scientific information can be more effectively achieved.
The “Opinions” adhere to the combination of goal-oriented and problem-oriented, focus on the implementation of the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, the strategy of strengthening the country with talents, and the strategy of innovation-driven development, focusing on the overall goal of building a culturally powerful country and promoting the high-quality development of cultural relics undertakings, aiming at the insufficient effective supply of cultural relics science and technology in my country. , cultural relics scientific research institutions are small and weak, there is a serious shortage of scientific and technological talents, the allocation of scientific and technological resources is unbalanced, and the scientific and technological management systems and mechanisms are not perfect, etc.A total of 16 measures have been proposed from four aspects: optimizing the layout of cultural relics science and technology innovation, building a strong cultural relics science and technology innovation platform, strengthening the cultural relics science and technology innovation talent team, and improving the cultural relics science and technology innovation incentive mechanism..
The “Opinions” mentioned that the research and development and system integration of common key technologies should be strengthened around the major needs for the protection and utilization of cultural relics.Focus on breakthroughs in key technologies for non-destructive/minimally destructive detection, diagnosis, prevention and protection effect evaluation of cultural relics diseases such as cave temples, ancient buildings, earthen ruins, and murals.; Develop emergency protection and restoration technologies for unearthed water-fragile cultural relics, optimize a complete set of protection technologies for textiles, bamboo lacquerware, paper, metal, and ceramic painted cultural relics; build a set of protection technologies suitable for cultural relics fires, floods, shocks/vibrations, theft and excavation, man-made destruction, etc. The technical system for monitoring, early warning and prevention of security risks forms a systematic solution. Promote the research and development and application demonstration of key technologies such as the digitization of cultural relics resources, the construction of smart museums, and the display of large heritage sites. Support scientific and technological innovation research on cultural relics through national science and technology plans.
The “Opinions” pointed out that in the subdivisions of cultural relics safety protection, monitoring and early warning, inspection and supervision, preventive protection, repair and restoration, display and utilization, and field archaeology,Break through a number of key equipment, devices, software systems and special materialsfill the gaps and achieve improvements in equipment supply, performance and quality.
Gamingdeputy attaches the “Opinions” on the main measures:
Optimizing the layout of cultural relics science and technology innovation
Continue to promote basic research and applied basic research on cultural relics
Strengthen basic theoretical research on the protection and utilization of cultural relics and build a theoretical system for the protection and utilization of cultural relics with Chinese characteristics. Focus on carrying out research on the material properties and disease characteristics of different types of cultural relics, strengthen basic scientific and technological work, and reveal the development mechanisms of diseases such as structural instability of cave temples and ancient buildings, weathering of rock and soil cultural relics, water and salt erosion, corrosion of movable cultural relics, and oxidation of photosensitive cultural relics. Breakthrough in disease development prediction methods. Accelerate the improvement of theories and methods in cultural relics value assessment, cultural relics protection planning, and cultural relics big data management. Focus on the urgent need for recognition, display and dissemination of the value of cultural relics, and strengthen theoretical and methodological research at the intersection of natural sciences, humanities and social sciences. Increase the support of the National Natural Science Foundation for basic research in the field of cultural relics.
Deploy and implement key technical research on cultural relics
Focusing on the major needs for the protection and utilization of cultural relics, strengthen the research and development and system integration of common key technologies. Focus on breakthroughs in key technologies for non-destructive/minimally destructive detection, diagnosis, prevention and protection effect evaluation of cultural relics such as cave temples, ancient buildings, earthen ruins, and murals; develop emergency protection and restoration technologies for unearthed fragile cultural relics, and optimize textiles, bamboo lacquerware, paper A complete set of protection technologies for painted cultural relics made of materials, metals, and ceramics; and a monitoring, early warning, and prevention technology system suitable for cultural relic fires, floods, shocks/vibrations, theft, excavation, man-made destruction, and other safety risks to form a systematic solution. Promote the research and development and application demonstration of key technologies such as the digitization of cultural relics resources, the construction of smart museums, and the display of large heritage sites. Support scientific and technological innovation research on cultural relics through national science and technology plans.
Vigorously develop special equipment for cultural relics
Adhere to the combination of supply improvement and demand traction, deepen the innovative development model of “manufacturers + users” and “products + services”, and focus on details such as cultural relic safety protection, monitoring and early warning, inspection and supervision, preventive protection, repair and restoration, display and utilization, and field archaeology. In different fields, break through a number of key equipment, devices, software systems and special materials to fill gaps and achieve improvements in equipment supply, performance and quality. Support the research and development of key equipment that is urgently needed in small quantities, standardize the market environment for equipment with large market demand and full competition, and establish and improve the industrial chain and supply chain of special equipment for cultural relics.
Comprehensively deepen research on major archaeological topics
Deeply implement major projects such as “Comprehensive Research on the Origin and Early Development of Chinese Civilization” and “Archaeology of China”, organize multi-disciplinary collaborative research around major archaeological and historical research topics, and scientifically explain the origins of human beings, the origins of agriculture, the origins of civilization, the formation of Chinese civilization, and Unify key issues such as the establishment and development of a multi-ethnic country and the important position of Chinese civilization in the history of world civilization, and reveal the historical and cultural value and core characteristics of Chinese civilization. Vigorously develop theories and methods such as dating, origin tracing, organic residue detection, ancient DNA analysis, and field archaeological informatization. Implement the “Internet + Chinese Civilization” special project, do a good job in disseminating archaeological research results at home and abroad, and improve cultural confidence. In the National Social Science Fund, increase support for cultural relics research.
Efforts to promote the transformation and application of cultural relics and scientific and technological achievements
Increase support for the transformation and application of cultural relics scientific and technological achievements, improve the mechanism for promoting the transformation of cultural relics scientific and technological achievements, coordinate the implementation of joint industry-university-research and application research, the construction of scientific and technological achievements transformation test platform, scientific and technological achievements application demonstration and technical training, and promote technical specialization, integration, standardization. Organize and implement cultural relics protection research projects jointly conducted by industry, academia and research, and establish an order-based R&D and achievement transformation mechanism of “targeted research and development, targeted transformation, and targeted services”. Build a number of experimental platforms for the transformation of cultural relics and scientific and technological achievements to provide real environments, venues and objects for subsequent testing, development and application of research and development results. Deploy advanced technology application demonstration projects in the fields of cultural relic protection and restoration, safety protection, archeology, and museum display, and establish a technology evaluation mechanism. Carry out innovation capability transmission demonstration projects to enhance the application level of cultural relics protection engineering technology.
Accelerate the construction of standardization in the field of cultural relics
Improve the standard system for the protection and utilization of cultural relics, and improve the interactive support mechanism between science and technology and standardization. Focus on promoting the urgent need for the formulation and revision of national and industry standards in cultural relic safety protection, cultural relic protection projects, archaeology, cultural relic digitization, grading of ancient books and cultural relics, and museum public cultural services, so as to effectively play the role of standards in “protecting the bottom line” and “raising the line.” Promote the coordinated development of cultural relics technological innovation, standard development and quality improvement of cultural relics protection and utilization, give priority to breakthroughs in key standards for inspection and testing of a batch of cultural relics protection materials, special equipment, project quality, etc., and carry out “one-stop” service for quality inspection and testing of cultural relics protection projects Platform pilot construction work.
Build a strong cultural relics science and technology innovation platform
Strengthen the backbone of scientific research in the cultural relics industry
Focus on the development goals of national cultural relics undertakings, and coordinate the deployment and construction of a number of research-oriented cultural and museum units and innovation bases that lead development. Implement the “Cultural Relics Science and Technology Innovation 2035 Project”, rely on central and provincial cultural and museum units, focus on cultivating national-level scientific research teams for cultural relics protection and archaeological research, and form a national leading force. Guide and promote the construction of cultural relics scientific research institutions in provinces with large cultural relic resources, and form the backbone of cultural relics scientific research with regional driving effects. Cultivate and build national key laboratories in archeology, cultural relics protection and other related fields. Strengthen the capacity building of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage’s scientific and technological innovation base and its workstations to serve important areas and key needs. Support cultural and museum units to build joint laboratories and innovation cooperation platforms with universities, scientific research institutes and key enterprises.
Develop the cultural relics research capabilities of universities and scientific research institutes
Give full play to the basic research and innovation advantages of universities and scientific research institutes, and rely on existing resource channels such as the National Natural Science Foundation to provide support to scientific and technological talents and scientific research teams engaged in cultural relic protection and archaeological-related research. Facing domestic urgent needs and international frontiers, relying on relevant advantageous units affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we will strengthen interdisciplinary and cross-field business contacts and cooperation.
Build cultural relics science and technology innovation infrastructure and platform
Adapt to the characteristics of innovative activities in the era of big science, lay out and build cultural relics scientific research infrastructure and basic scientific and technological conditions platforms. Relying on the National Cultural Heritage Science and Technology Innovation Center, the Nanhai Base of the Archaeological Research Center of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, etc., a comprehensive scientific research experimental platform will be built. Lay out and build special experimental platforms for fire prevention and control of cultural relics buildings, cultural relics building structures and shock absorption, service evaluation of cultural relics protection materials, cultural relics scenario display and intelligent technology, and support the construction of regional cultural relics protection and archaeological analysis and testing service centers. Accelerate the construction of cultural relics and archaeological specimen resource libraries and cultural relics protection scientific data centers, and gradually promote their inclusion in the national science and technology resource sharing service platform sequence.
Strengthen international scientific and technological exchanges and cooperation
Build an international scientific research cooperation platform for cultural heritage and coordinate the promotion of international academic exchanges, scientific research cooperation, talent training and institutional construction of cultural heritage. Focusing on major topics such as the comparative study of world civilizations, the protection of cultural heritage along the Silk Road, and the risk map of cultural heritage, we will in-depth implement international research plans and projects, and jointly carry out cooperative research with countries building the “Belt and Road”. Actively participate in large-scale international scientific and technological cooperation programs in the field of cultural heritage. Attract internationally renowned research institutions to come to China to jointly establish an international cultural heritage science and technology center.
Strengthen the team of cultural relics science and technology innovation talents
Expand the scale of cultivating cultural relics science and technology talents
Accelerate the cultivation of reserve talents for cultural relics science and technology innovation through various channels such as discipline construction, scientific research platform construction and major project implementation. Promote the construction of disciplines related to cultural relics science and technology, and increase the cultivation of cultural relics science and technology talents that intersect liberal arts and science. Encourage and support qualified “double first-class” colleges and universities to independently set up undergraduate majors in archeology, cultural relics and museology, and cultural relics protection technology. Through the “Strong Foundation Plan” and “National Strategic Talent Reserve Enrollment Plan in Key Fields”, etc., we will strengthen the regular incremental tilt and the adjustment of the existing structure to improve the scale and quality of high-level talent training in fields related to cultural relics science and technology innovation. Improve the “dual tutor” system for postgraduate training in cultural and cultural majors, and give full play to the guiding role of industry tutors. Support the upgrading and digital transformation of vocational education “cultural relic restoration and protection” and other related majors, and strengthen the training of technical and skilled talents.
Strengthen scientific research talents in the cultural relics industry
The establishment supply of public institutions in the province should be appropriately tilted towards cultural and museum institutions, strengthen the potential of internal capabilities, highlight the functions of cultural and museum institutions, and focus on ensuring professional and technical positions. Optimize the job structure of cultural and museum institutions, with professional and technical positions generally not less than 70%, and increase the proportion of scientific researchers accordingly. Among local cultural and museum institutions, first-level, second-level and third-level museums and cultural relics protection and research institutions, professional and technical senior positions are controlled according to no more than 40% of first-level, no more than 35% of second-level, and no more than 30% of third-level positions; Other museums, cultural relics protection and research institutions shall control no more than 25%. Cultural and museum institutions may set up innovative positions to carry out technological research and development of cultural relics protection according to the needs of scientific and technological innovation work. If there are insufficient positions, they may apply for the establishment of special positions in accordance with regulations, and are not subject to restrictions on the total number of positions and structural proportions. Support cultural and museum units in attracting scientific researchers from universities and research institutes to work part-time on the front line as required.
Increase efforts to cultivate young and middle-aged scientific research backbones
Continue to implement the “Cultural Relics Outstanding Youth Support Action” to cultivate and create a group of young and middle-aged scientific research backbones and innovative teams in the field of cultural relics, focusing on discovering and cultivating masters, strategic scientists, scientific and technological leaders, outstanding engineers, great craftsmen and high-level experts in the protection and utilization of cultural relics. Skilled talent. Establish and improve the system of young visiting scholars, and support cultural and museum institutions in selecting and sending young scientific researchers to visit universities and research institutes off-duty. Support cultural and museum units in setting up postdoctoral research workstations and jointly recruit postdoctoral researchers with universities and research institutes.
Improve the incentive mechanism for technological innovation in cultural relics
Promote the reform of scientific research management in cultural and museum units
All regions and units should benchmark against the central science and technology system reform policy requirements and combine the business characteristics of cultural and museum units to optimize and improve relevant management regulations. Cultural and cultural institutions that undertake national key scientific research tasks enjoy relevant policies that grant greater autonomy to scientific research institutions and personnel in terms of scientific research project management, scientific research fund management and use, and temporary overseas travel of scientific researchers on official business. Encourage legal persons to take responsibility, and provide preferential support to units that implement policies in place and have outstanding scientific and technological innovation performance in determining the total amount of performance-based wages, applying for various types of science and technology plans at all levels, and laying out and building scientific and technological innovation bases.
Strengthen incentives and rewards for scientific and technological innovation in cultural relics
Reasonably determine the total performance salary of cultural and museum units, and improve the internal allocation incentive mechanism to encourage innovation. The indirect expenses of centrally financed scientific research projects are arranged and used by the project undertaking unit as a whole, and can all be used for performance expenditures, with preference given to teams and individuals with outstanding innovation performance. A group of pilot research-based cultural and museum units enjoy the scientific and technological achievement transformation reward policy for scientific researchers when carrying out scientific and technological achievement transformation activities stipulated in the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Promoting the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements”. The income from the transformation of scientific and technological achievements can be used for cash rewards, and the cash rewards are included in the current year. The unit’s total performance salary is not limited by the total amount and is not included in the total base. Relevant units should establish and improve management regulations for the transformation of job-related scientific and technological achievements, and clarify the scope of personnel who enjoy the policy of cash rewards for achievement transformation, specific distribution methods and related processes. In accordance with relevant national regulations, rewards will be given to individuals and organizations that have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of cultural relics science and technology.
Improve the incentive mechanism for enterprise technological innovation
Promote the identification of high-tech enterprises in the field of cultural relics and encourage enterprises to increase research and development of special technologies for cultural relics. Encourage leading enterprises to invest first and carry out research and development of key materials, equipment and other technical products for cultural relics protection, and use first purchase, ordering and other methods to promote the research and development and large-scale application of innovative products. Promote the cultivation and establishment of national technological innovation centers in the field of cultural relics.